Last updated on: 6/6/2022 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Paul B. Ginsburg and Steven M. Lieberman, “Government Regulated or Negotiated Drug Prices: Key Design Considerations,”, Aug. 30, 2021
2.Merriam-Webster, “Prescription Drug,” (accessed Mar. 29, 2022)
3.Randa Hilal-Dandan and Laurence L. Brunton, “Appendix I: Principles of Prescription Order Writing and Patient Compliance,” Goodman and Gilman's Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2nd Edition,, 2014
4.Julia Hawley, “How Pharmaceutical Companies Price Their Drugs,”, Mar. 21, 2022
5.Melissa Pistilli, “10 Top Pharma Companies by Revenue,”, Dec. 09, 2021
6.Drug Discovery & Development, “Pharma 50: The 50 Largest Pharmaceutical Companies in the World,” (accessed Mar. 30, 2022)
7.Evaluate, “Evaluate Pharma World Preview 2020, Outlook to 2026,”, July 16, 2020
8.American Medical Association, “How Are Prescription Drug Prices Determined?,”, Apr. 9, 2019
9.The Commonwealth Fund, “Pharmacy Benefit Managers and Their Role in Drug Spending,”, Apr. 22, 2019
10.Sonya Collins, “Most Physicians Unable to Estimate Patients’ Out-of-Pocket Costs: How Pharmacists Can Help,”, Mar. 1, 2022
11.Rand Corporation, “Prescription Drug Prices in the United States Are 2.56 Times Those in Other Countries,”, Jan. 28, 2021
12.Juliette Cubanski, Tricia Neuman, and Meredith Freed, “Explaining the Prescription Drug Provisions in the Build Back Better Act,”, Nov. 23, 2021
13.Barbara Sprunt, “House Passes Bill to Cap Insulin Prices,”, Mar. 31, 2022
14.Margot Sanger-Katz, “House Passes Bill to Limit Cost of Insulin to $35 a Month,”, Mar. 31, 2022
15.Kaiser Family Foundation, “Poll: Nearly 1 in 4 Americans Taking Prescription Drugs Say It’s Difficult to Afford Their Medicines, including Larger Shares among Those with Health Issues, with Low Incomes and Nearing Medicare Age,”, Mar. 1, 2019
16.Paul Brandus, “Opinion: Food or Medication? The Dangerous Choice Many Seniors Have to Make,”, Mar. 26, 2021
17.Healio Internal Medicine, “Nearly Half of Americans Forgo Medical Care Because of Cost,”, Mar. 27, 2018
18.Truth in Rx, “Price Hikes and Secret Deals,” (accessed Mar. 29, 2022)
19.Darrell Hulisz, The Soaring Price of EpiPen,” (accessed Mar. 31, 2022)
20.Emily Willingham, “Why Did Mylan Hike EpiPen Prices 400%? Because They Could,”, Aug 21, 2016
21.Cynthia Koons and Robert Langreth, “How Marketing Turned the EpiPen Into a Billion-Dollar Business,”, Sep. 23, 2015
22.Wayne Drash, “Anatomy of a 97,000% Drug Price Hike: One Family’s Fight to Save Their Son,”, June 29, 2018
23.Heather Long and Matt Egan, “Meet the Guy behind the $750 AIDS Drug,”, Sep. 22, 2015
24.Surescripts, “Data Brief: Physician Perspectives on Access to Patient Data,”, Apr. 2018
25.Jules Lipoff, “​​Expensive Prescriptions Have Patients Skipping Their Meds. What Can Doctors Do about It?,”, Apr. 3, 2018
26.Congressional Budget Office, “Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry,”, Apr. 2021
27.Joe Kennedy, “The Link Between Drug Prices and Research on the Next Generation of Cures,”, Sep. 9, 2019
28.Investopedia Team, "What Are the Average Research and Development Costs for Pharmaceutical Companies?,", Mar. 11, 022
29.David A. Ricks, “The Risks of Government Negotiation of Drug Prices,”, Oct. 25, 2021
30.Jake Ellison, “Drug Rebates for Insurers Tied to Higher Costs for Patients, Especially the Uninsured,”, June 15, 2021
31.Kai Yeung, Stacie B. Dusetzina, and Anirban Basu, “Association of Branded Prescription Drug Rebate Size and Patient Out-of-Pocket Costs in a Nationally Representative Sample, 2007-2018,”, June 14, 2021
32.Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute, "45 CFR § 156.122 - Prescription Drug Benefits," (accessed June 6, 2022)
33.Chip Davis, "It’s Up to Congress to Make Life-Saving Drugs Affordable,", Feb. 8, 2018
34.Tom Coburn, “Free Market, Better Medicine,”, Feb. 15, 2018
35.Jake Novack, “Trump’s Losses in Drug Pricing Battle Should Be a Free Market Wake-Up Call to Him,”, July 11, 2019
36.Jacob James Rich, “It’s Time to Free the Pharmaceutical Market From Government Control,”, Apr. 3, 2020
37.Ken Alltucker, “Struggling to Stay Alive: Rising Insulin Prices Cause Diabetics to Go to Extremes,”, Mar. 21, 2019
38.Kristin Fraser, “Why Americans Are Getting Their Insulin from Mexico,”, July 21, 2019
39.Emily Kopp, “Nonprofit Working yo Block Drug Imports Has Ties to Pharma Lobby,”, Mar. 18, 2017
40.Bram Sable-Smith, “American Travelers Seek Cheaper Prescription Drugs In Mexico And Beyond,”, Feb. 11, 2019
41.Public Employees Health Program, “Pharmacy Tourism Program,” (accessed Apr. 5, 2022)
42.Erin Alberty, “Prescriptions from Mexico? Utah Is Paying Public Employees to Make the Trip,”, Jan. 5, 2020
43.Nisha Kurani, Dustin Cotliar, and Cynthia Cox, “How Do Prescription Drug Costs in the United States Compare to Other Countries?,”, Feb. 8, 2022
44.Sydney Lupkin, "FDA Approves Florida’s Plan to Import Cheaper Drugs from Canada,", Jan. 5, 2024
45.The Canadian Press
Staff, "Move to Allow Canadian Drugs to Be Imported by U.S. Creates Shortage Fears,", Jan. 5, 2024
46.FDA, "FDA Authorizes Florida’s Drug Importation Program,", Jan. 5, 2024
47.FDA, "Importation Program under Section 804 of the FD&C Act,", Jan. 5, 2024